Thursday, March 12, 2020
George Herbert Essay Example George Herbert Paper George Herbert Paper Essay Topic: George Herbert Poems Herberts is visibly devout and requires very little in-depth reading to realise this. Hes so focused on the deliverance of a religious message that he even structures the poems shape according to the context to the poem, which is obviously indicative of his piousness, but what appears in his poetry is also that despite this devotion, its never quite enough. The most obvious example of a poem wherein the context is delivered not only through language but very powerfully through structure as well is The Altar, where the poem itself is structured eponymously as an altar. Herberts rather unusual way of layering his poetry with allusions to what it is about is however undeniably effective in emphasising the clarity of the message and perhaps also as a mean to please God at the same time through the devotion of this literary altar. The Altar, like much of Herberts poetry, is rather straightforward and plain and doesnt contain much complexity, save structurally, and it may be because they are devotional poems to God, and he thus keeps it simple so as to humble himself. The piety of his poetry is really understandable, given that he was in fact a minister until his death in 1633, even choosing to become a rural vicar in favour of his position as Member of Parliament. Suffering from tuberculosis in his later years, it is clear that he became more aware of his mortality and consequently more devout, which is evident in Virtue. Virtue is not as dense as The Altar and follows a more conventional type of writing, though Herbert still uses anABAB rhyming scheme and Virtue is an Iambic Tetrameter. : Typical of Herberts style of writing, despite that Iambic pentameter was becoming more popular at the time, being particularly promoted by Shakespeare. The poem follows the path of life. The stanzas start with beautiful and happy things but finishes with a darker, unhappy ending. This was how life was seen at the time. Everything was beautiful when you were young but as time goes by; life loses its colour and becomes more of a hardship. Each stanza starts with sweet description of the things which appear beautiful to humans; Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright and Sweet rose, whose hue angrie and brave. The first line also features a strong use of sibilance, that adds emphasis and force behind the poem and it is also the first line of the poem which provides an opinion of the poem almost immediately. The stanzas are split into 2 moods, of a happy side and a depressing, morose side. This shows the two sides of the poem and life. Like Herbert, many of John Donnes poems have a religious background, owing to his time as Dean in St. Pauls Cathedral, as well as a wilder side, as he was an adventurous man who sailed and fought in naval battles against Spain. Donne also secretly married the daughter of his boss without permission and inevitably received a lot of criticism for this. Perhaps because of this, Donne wrote many religious and passionate, but at the same time forceful poems. Holy Sonnet 10 is an Iambic Pentameter, and follows an ABBA pattern as opposed to ABAB used by Herbert. However Holy Sonnet 10 does not follow this pattern, as halfway through the poem the pattern changes to CDCD which is the same as Herbert, then however, the final 2 lines are in an E, E pattern which is completely random from the other poems I have studied. Donne may use these sudden changes in pattern to project an atmosphere depending on the mood he wants to convey. These changes may reflect Donnes temperament and wild ideas. Holy Sonnet 10 uses more grammatical and metaphorical structures than Herberts poems. He uses enjambment, plosive letters, paradoxes, sestet and octaves, alliteration and metaphors. Even at the beginning of the poem, the first line can be said powerfully. Batter my heart, Batter is an explosive word and adds emphasis right at the start of the poem. This already gives an impression of the poem and shows Donnes preferred style. Knocke, breathe, shine are all actions that imply a direct approach, it is also related to the three persons of God, mentioned in line 1; the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. This is to further emphasizethe idea by relating to God. Enjambment is used at the end of the first line as it runs on into thesecond line, this keeps the words and rhythm flowing. There are also examples of enjambmentat the end of lines 3 and 12, this keeps the atmosphere going at important points and maintains the mood. Line 4 also contains a more violent and wilder relation to the line 2 actions. breake, blowe, burn as opposed to knocke, breathe, shine. Already it is clear how Donne uses religion and passionate, wild ideas in his poems. But Donnes poetry never comes off quite as lacking in faith, as Herberts does. In the 7th line, Donne makes a reference to reason ruling man instead of God. Being quite a heretical thought at the time, it is however Biblically rooted -it was believed that it was reason that separated humans from animals and so is humans defining characteristic. Donne goes on to say that reason sometimes fails man and betrays him, but God is always there and will forgive men. This shows Donnes faith in God, which is much the same as Herbert. Donne however seeks accepts the inevitable and gives himself up to God and imprisonment. The whole idea of God imprisoning and ravishing a person is completely paradoxical when God is seen as a forgiving being. To show this, Donne has made the last 2 lines, paradoxes. You enthrallmee, never shall be free and ever chast, except you ravishmee. While Donne is more daring and passionate, he is still more fervent in his belief that God will be there, where Herbert is less certain, evident by his devotion within the poetry that still lacks a sense of drive.
Monday, February 24, 2020
Legal Factors involved in Corporate Management and Ownership - Essay Example However, their negligence of duty can be linked back to the directors over poor management. If the management of the corporation was tough and well organized, there would be no significant financial errors. In words by Harrington & Carter (2009) directors investing in their company dependable on the growth of the company may sometimes viewed as fraud in any occurrence of uncertainty. If the directors invested in the company due to bad financial reports, it is regarded as more negligence. It is with no objection that financial losses incurred in the company should be liable to the directors. The decrease in stock price is also a result from the mistake of the directors and the financial officers. In dealing with this incidence, the fraudulent officers should be sacked or demoted to posts with fewer responsibilities. The directors of the company should take responsibility of the error and compensate investors due to the reduction in stock
Saturday, February 8, 2020
- materials - Lab Report Example Steel is artificially produced and it exists in different forms of iron. Whereas steel has carbon content which is less than that of pig iron, its carbon content is more than that of wrought iron. Moreover, steel has such qualities as elasticity, hardness, as well as strength, which depends on the heat treatment and composition (Makelainen and Hassinen 488). Consequently, it is categorized as either having low, medium or high carbon content. On the other hand, aluminium is a silvery white metallic element that is ductile and has low density as well as high strength to weight ratio and is mainly bauxite. Owing to its good thermal and conductive properties, aluminium is usually used in forming hard light corrosion resistant alloys. Similarly, a polymer is defined as chemical compound that is formed through a process known as polymerization, and it consists of repeating structural units (Cheremisinoff 1). Inherently, polymers are normally characterized by their light weight and their ab ility to resist corrosion and reaction. Materials and methods The dumbbell specimens were put under tensile forces through a horizontal tensile testing machine. Consequently, the diameter of the specimen was obtained by use of vernier calliper and recorded before the test commenced. Moreover, during the application of the load, two cameras were used in determining the diameter of specimen. Subsequently, the cross-sectional area of the specimen was obtained and together with the load, both the engineering stress and the true stress were calculated in accordance to the following equations. The process was repeated for all the materials. Consequently, a horizontal tensile force was applied to the specimen. The elongation and the new diameter of the specimen, due to the applied load were similarly obtained through the use of VI monitor and the cameras, and they were recorded. Using the load (KN), the diameter (mm) and the elongation (m), engineering and true stress, engineering strain, yield stress *0.1 percent offset, Young modulus, ductility, ultimate tensile stress and work fracture were also obtained. Where where r = diameter/ 2 = Davis defines young elastic modulus as the measure of the resistance of a material to elastic deformation (32). It is equal to the slope of a stress/strain curve in elastic region. Therefore, where , and , are y axis points of the curve, and; , and are x axis points of the curve Moreover, according to Davis ductility of material describes the ability of a material to deform permanently before failure (37). It is actually the engineering strain at failure. = Davis claims that work fracture is equal to the area under stress-strain curve, and its unit is work per unit volume (Nm/m3) (45). More importantly, the ultimate tensile strength refers to the maximum amount of stress a material can bear. It is obtained from the engineering stress-strain curve as the highest point. Conclusion From the tensile test conducted on the materials A, B, and C, the young modulus, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were obtained. Material A had the highest young modulus with a value of 190 GPa, and it was followed by material B and finally material C. Consequently, from the results it is clear that as the materials become brittle, the Young modulus tends to become higher. It was also noted that the polymer achieved the highest engineering strain, of 0.57, and was closely followed by steel with 0.35 and aluminium with 0.1.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Idealistic Politics Essay The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles, said Karl Marx, who is considered to be one of the worlds most seminal thinkers. Marx categorized these classes in two broad categories; the bourgeoisie versus the proletariats, the upper class opposed to the lower class and the caste that have access to the factors of production against everybody else who are compelled to sell their labor. In political terms the bourgeois were the committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie (Marx, 20) and in order to reduce any friction, tension or resistance towards their supremacy they then laid down a set of ideals and values for all classes and citizens. The ultimate goal of having a monotonous set of principles was to disintegrate existing ideals and values by instigating the proletariats to fully accept the bourgeois set of principles by suspending their own. History, however, has yet to see such an outcome where the bourgeois triumph in instigating such circumstances successfully. What occurs in such circumstances instead is a conflict due to inconsistency that occurs between the dogmas of both classes; whereby the reality based ideals of the proletariats clashes with the idealistic values of the bourgeoisie. These conflicts in turn affect the political ideologies and actions since the politics is the arena where the battle of principles occurs, primarily due to two reasons. The first being that these conflicts will not surface in the first place except in the political arena due to the austere nature and secondly the outcomes will not be accepted unless at a level were they are made public and irreversible. Evidence of these conflicts exists in our texts and films, however in differing contexts. In Antigone, Creon represents the bourgeoisie and Antigone the proletariats; in A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences the arts and sciences were the corrupting vales instigated by the intellectuals whilst the savage being was the unlearned and naÃ ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ve proletariat, and finally in Marxs Communist Manifesto where the distinctions are extremely clear among the two classes. In the course of my paper I wish to examine the strength and weakness of each of these ideal societies and their implications to political ideology and action. The values of Karl Marxs idealist communist society may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property (Marx, 34). He believed that once private ownership was abolished people would change, and this would finally end the history of all class struggles. Communism to Marx was an extension or a purer form of socialism, whereby the people owned everything and everybody worked for the system, hence no form of personal interests was vested in the system. This assumption was made by placing a gamble on human behavior, probably the most unpredictable factor to place any form of wager on. Marx was assuming that among a whole class of people no interests [were] separate and apart from those of the proletariat as a whole (Marx, 33). The society that Marx visualized was one where all the citizens desired only the interests of the society by not desiring to satisfy their personal interests. History, however, does not have a basis for pure communism where a group of people have ceased to exist without any possessions and have lived only by the idea; the closest analogy one could give would be of hunter-gatherer societies. These societies, however, existed during the prehistoric times where human attitudes and behaviours were not being constantly reshaped by the changing economic systems in which people find themselves nowadays, which Marx himself mentions as there being no such thing as fixed human nature. Therefore, communism could never work because it goes against human nature. People are naturally more competitive than cooperative. Moreover, the possibility for revolution to occur where the bourgeoisie were to come down in their social status to the level of the proletariats and the proletariats rise to eminence of the bourgeoisies could only occur if human nature were to be dismantled, self memories be wiped out and in other words for the revolution to occur success fully in needs to be self induced. Marx in an indirect manner implies how ones self worth has decreased with the current system when he discusses the dynamics of wage labour and whether it creates property for the laborer. He states that the system is self-defeating for the laborers, which cannot increase except upon condition of begetting a new supply of wage-laborer for fresh exploitation (Marx 34). If we were to refer back to the analogy hunter-gatherer societies the fruits of ones labour were immediate; when an individual hunted his reward was immediate and did not wait for his fruits or live only in so far as the interest of the ruling class requires it (Marx. 35). In short mans worth and dignity has been demoralized and every individual has been converted in paid wage laborersand has reducedrelations[s] to a mere money relations (Marx, 21). Individuals were not bounded by the social status hunter-gatherer since everyone shared and everyone knew their worth. The advantage of this system is that it does not create any room for friction to occur because it does not include the idea of individuals desiring to wish to control the environment or vest any personal interests into the system. This can primarily be attributed to the value the system advocates of not wishing to differentiate people under any circumstances; the system does not know race, ethnicity and differences of age and sex no longer [have] any distinctive social validity (Marx, 26), a trait of hunter-gatherer societies, which Marx so dearly desires. These values would in turn affect the political ideologies of a system trying to covert to communism by picking on the one essential condition for the existenceof the bourgeois class, the formation and the augmentation of capital: the condition for capital is wage labour (Marx, 32). Therefore, the conflicts that would arise would be those that regarding wage labour and its supply; the bourgeoisie would advocate any action that would enhance the competition between laborers the key behind keeping a continuous supply of wage labour opposed to the proletariats immediate aim of cutting off this supply and by doing so ensuring its immediate aim of overthrowing the bourgeois supremacy. Any decline in wage labour would threaten the bourgeoisies capital by reducing its turnover, hence weakening their foothold in the marketplace in turn inhibiting their ability to constantly revolutionize the instruments of production in order to exist and survive (Marx, 21). The bourgeoisie quest to seek a continuous wage labour would see a shift in their political ideology; they would seek to manipulate cities, provinces and other nations that are weak cause them to become dependent on them. The consequence of such political centralization would lead to the epidemic of overproduction, whereby the only manner in which the crises can be overcome is by the conquest of new markets, and by the and by the more through exploitation of the old ones (Marx, 25). However, such exploitation of markets can occur only to a certain limit, until other nations impose regulations confiding the system to resort to desperate measures and turmoil, which occurred with China. Chinese products flooded the world market until recently and now they have been rejected entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) and do not enjoy the benefits of free trade. Therefore, China have used enforced destruction of a mass of productive forces (Marx, 25) to decrease their output, which has lead to a lot of turmoil inside the country with dogmas of the government political stability and international recognition and the working class subsistence and a better life clashing against each other further depressing the situation. Like Karl Marx, J.J. Rousseau also painted a picture of ideal society. In his Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences he condemns how societies have succumbed to arts and sciences that have molded our behavior, and taught our passions to speak an artificial language (Rousseau, 6) with the desire to please one another with performances worthy of their mutual approbation (Rousseau, 4). He believed that individuals were imprisoned in the values and ideals of society that the arts and sciences strengthened, whereby everyone followed and nobody dared to be prompted by their inner selves in order not be seen as outcasts, resulting in man losing his individuality. In a nutshell, Rousseau believed that the arts and sciences had tainted origins and they reinforced our crimes by fostering our desire for comfort by transforming individuals into sugar coated pills, whereby jealousy, suspicion, fear, coldness, reserve, hate and fraud lie constantly concealed under the uniform and deceitful veil of politeness (Rousseau, 7). He in turn pictured a society were he believed man was innately pious was not restrained by societys decorum therefore abandoning the possibilities o the vices that evolve in modern societies are nonexistent. He understood virtue in terms of bravery, courage and strength in other words he saw it in raw military power. The weaknesses in Rousseaus painting of the ideal society are the assumptions that are embedded in the question that he was addressing Whether the restoration of the arts and sciences has had the effect of purifying or corrupting morals? Rousseau has to assume that there has been a revival in the arts as well as assume a relationship between abstract and applied knowledge with morality that being the human behavior and customs a society embraces. Such assumptions lead Rousseau to base his argument on a set of contradictions. He idealized the values of the Persians, Germans and Spartans who had an unusual social structure where there was no study of abstract education, no accumulation of property and military virtues were emphasized. The idealizations of such societies contradicted his resentment for etiquette or what he referred to as the veil of politeness, since there exists no organization whereby more discipline, etiquette or order to our rude but natural morals is required than military organizations. Throughout the discourse the theme of man becoming corrupt once he enters society and losing his individuality because they all act the same under the same circumstances alike (Rousseau, 6) is repeatedly emphasized. This argument in itself is self-defeating because if it is the grouping of people that induces people to conceal themselves and live among uncertainty, Rousseaus ideal society would truly only function for isolated individuals since such a level of purity could not occur in the natural dynamics of human societies. When individuals interact, the views and ideals of others will indeed affect the way the individual will live his life, since it is part of human nature to conform to the rules and regulations of others, which are a collection of ideals and values that compromise the principles of society. For a society to function in harmony there has to be some common ground whereby all the different members of that society must conform to and must sacrifice some of their individual ideals for the betterment of the society. Rousseau argues that man would not have to sacrifice his own ideals if he was not placed in the blasphemies of modern societies since he assumes humans are sincerely good and everyone would approve of the actions of others. This in itself breaks Rousseaus argument since there is exists no yardstick to measure good and even if there were to exist such a measure, differences on which good is appropriate would in turn cause conflicts. The simplicity of the society Rousseau describes is its initial strength; the simpler ones life, the palette on which he is to express his bad perspectives becomes less like the American savageswho live entirely on the products of the chase[and] yoke, indeed, [cannot] be imposed on men who stand in need of nothing (Rousseau,5). In a society where the needs do not exceed the basic physiological, safety and social needs and are readily satisfied the room for corruption becomes minimal. Therefore, I believe Rousseaus attack on the arts and sciences is not so much on their origins or sources but more so on how it manages to widen our needs to include self-actualization and self-realization needs, which are needs that are satisfied by luxuries and how we appear in relation to the people surrounding us; a need where the veil and corruption required to have those needs satisfied. Rousseaus painting of such an ideal society would not require a political system, however if all his assumptions were suspended the political implications would be drastic. In politics rarely is something said literally and in a society where the members innately believe that everyone is sincerely good, would not be capable of reading between the lines and would end up in turmoil since other nations would manipulate their naivety. Furthermore, in a society where abstract knowledge such a geometry and economics is not taught the politicians will be incapable of drawing upon actions that will be favour their society, since politics is the evil of all sciences and without a good base in its basic terminology that being the abstract sciences one will be incapable of mastering it and using it to his advantage. Speak from their heartoffend someone.do not take care In Antigone the Greek tragedy, morals, egos, and gender issues were the epics around which principles were based upon. Follow one man Harun Al Rashid..Mamluks..they use to be all loyal Lower class has less say in the political era in order to stop the formation of proletariats which is so important for the revolution to occur. Political laws that protect private property Enhance competitiveness (p.21) Dependence of poor countries on rich ([.23) Eradicate opposition immediately Strength of prletarits p.28 trade unions p.32 existence remains on capital 1) Basecaus they lay down ideals that seem utopian only to them, they forget 2) Might have noticed that there are more cons than pros Several of our texts paint images of ideal human society. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these imagined societies. How do these imagined ideal societies interact with political ideology and political action. Bibliography Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto. New York: Bantam, 1992. Sophocles. The Three Theban Plays Antigone, Oedipus The King, Oedipus at Colonus. Trans. Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin, 1977. Communism Could Never work Because it goes against human nature. People are naturally more competitive than cooperative. http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/hum_303/nature.html
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Transformers: More Than Meets The Eye Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When I was younger, I loved to watch cartoons. Although I watched many cartoons, there was one cartoon in particular that caught my attention the most. This cartoon was a science fiction story about robotic lifeforms called The Transformers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã At that time, The Transformers was the most exciting and important thing in my life. It came on everyday, and I tried not to ever miss an episode. If I knew I would miss an episode, I made sure I had someone record it for me so I could watch it later. I even recorded many shows just to be able to watch them over and over again. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One day when I was away somewhere, I had my mother record it for me. After returning home, I immediately began to view the tape only to find out that the tape ran out about half way though the show. I remember I was so incredibly angry over not being able to completely watch the episode, that I threw a childish tantrum by crying and yelling at my poor mother. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I later began buying The Transformers action figures; which were developed by Hasbro from the television series. Over the years, I accumulated a collection of about thirty different characters; which I still have stored in my room. I don't think I could ever get rid of them. Also, each Transformer came with a stat card on the back of the box he was sold in that described his various skills and attributes. I used to always cut these stat cards from the back of the boxes, and tape them onto large sheets; which I hung on my bedroom wall. Along with the action figures, I also had Transformer books and Transformer bedsheets. I couldn't get enough of the Transformers. I saw about every episode, and I knew about everything there was to know about them. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Transformers were intelligent robots with the ability to transform from a robot shape to some other shape. The very first Transformers were the Autobots and the Decepticons. The Autobots, who transformed into cars, were the heroes, while the Decepticons, who transformed into jets, were the villains. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The two groups originated over a millennia ago. A race called the Quintessons were the heads of a huge galactic corporation. They built the planet of Cybertron into a huge factory in which to build robotic slaves. They created two basic models: household and entertainment robots, and warrior robots. Whenever one to the slaves began to show signs of intelligence, the Quintessons destroyed them to be used as materials for new robots being created.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Nurses also bring added advantages to the role of Lean leader-an uncompromising commitment to patient care and the natural ability to view hospital yester through the lens of the patient. The second literature Ã¢â¬Å"Lean Management in Med/SurgeÃ¢â¬ By Barbara Mercer talks about the pros and cons of lean Management as Tracy Galilee, MBA, URN, has developed a professional and personal investment in the success of the organization- one aftercare's lean facilitators.Lean management principles are derived from the manufacturing industry, specifically from Toyota Motor Corporation, which espouses continuous improvement and respect for people. Sounds like a great idea to incorporate into healthcare, wouldn't you think? The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (III) agreed. The Ã¢â¬ËHis 2005 White Paper Going Lean in Healthcare was based on expert presentations from the Ã¢â¬ËHI Calls to Action Series.Among the experts was John Toasting, MD, president and CEO at Teacher, who was integ ral to bringing lean management to the organization. The white paper's executive summary briefly explained the purpose and goals of lean management as they would relate to healthcare: Ã¢â¬Å"The Institute for Healthcare Improvement believes that lean principles can be Ã¢â¬â indeed, already are being Ã¢â¬â successfully applied to the delivery of health care. Lean thinking begins with driving out waste so that all work adds value and reverse the customer's needs.For those unfamiliar with lean management practices, Galilee did not take over as a dietary counselor; instead, she assisted nursing staff to cut the fat from daily processes that stand in the way of the most efficient practices and the best possible outcomes for patients. Now the business unit manager of the med/surge unit, Galilee continues to assist staff in employing lean principles in a developing community of empowered problem-solvers. (2) The last literature to be reviewed is an article that spoke against the impl ementation of Lean ManagementDon't Ã¢â¬ËLean' on Me, Hospital Workers Say' by Alexandra Bradbury [August 1 5, 2013. Part of the lean ethos is getting workers to participate in their own exploitation. Some hospitals offer nurses a boost of pay and status for championing a lean project. Ã¢â¬Å"Hospitals are very often successful at co-opting natural leaders,Ã¢â¬ Mencken said. What can the union do? First is to educate members to see through management's hype-?what labor educator Charley Richardson called the Ã¢â¬Å"tricks and trapsÃ¢â¬ designed to lull you into believing you and management have the same concerns at heart.These include Joint brainstorming, win-win rhetoric, and trust exercises. One strategy is to try to get your people onto the lean team-?but they probably won't be picked, and it's a Ã¢â¬Å"slippery slope,Ã¢â¬ Sheridan-Gonzalez said. Union members on Joint committees should treat every meeting as if it were a bargaining session, with two opposing sides. They can say, Ã¢â¬Å"We don't accept your framing. We see this as a potential for harm,Ã¢â¬ Mencken recommends. And the usual union tactics can be used against lean, too: petitions, forms that document unsafe staffing, button/ sticker days, and marches on the boss to resist speed-up. 3) Study Population Nurses have served as leaders of 2 very successful Lean initiatives at the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RUSH). Founded in 1884, RUSH is a Magnet hospital that is the principal teaching hospital of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey's Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Each year Rush's 1300 physicians and 1500 nurses care for more than 200 000 patients. The first case study-Ã¢â¬Å"OR LeanÃ¢â¬ -details the Lean transformation of Rush's operating room (OR).The second case study describes the remodeling of Rush's emergency department (DEED) with Lean principles and practices. Monsoons et al,2012) While nurses in Interiors Medical Center, New York and Cal ifornia Pacific Medical Center have iced out the disadvantages of Lean Management in their respective hospitals. Sources of Data A primary source data was utilized in this study. Lean management as cited in journals, articles and blobs and are mostly Internet based were used and acknowledged.Some of these Journals and articles are: Ã¢â¬Å"From Toyota to the Bedside: Nurses Can Lead the Lean Way in Health Care ReformÃ¢â¬ by Joyce E. Johnson, Amy L. Smith and Kari A. Master (Nursing Administration Quarterly,September 2012 ,Volume 36 Number 3 ,Pages 234 Ã¢â¬â 242), Ã¢â¬Å"Lean Management in Med/SurgeÃ¢â¬ By Barbara Mercer, and Ã¢â¬Å"Lean Management Don't Ã¢â¬ËLean' on Me, Hospital Workers Say' by Alexandra Bradbury Ã¢â¬ËAugust 1 5, 2013 among others. Data Analysis As stated in the research's sources 2 data clearly evolved and both stating favor and opposition towards lean management.The 2 cases in RUSH that favor lean management has the following results from their studie s: case study 1 : OR LEAN The need for improved efficiency in OR scheduling has been although the number of Lean interventions in the OR reported in the literature is relatively small when compared with interventions in other hospital departments. Most recently in 2011, Violence reported a 20% increase in OR productivity and capacity n a Canadian hospital that adopted Lean methods.The electronic paperwork to discharge a patient is Ã¢â¬Å"eight pages of clicks,Ã¢â¬ said Betsy Prescott, a leader in the Massachusetts Nurses Association. Muff get spoken to if you miss one thing. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ some of these floors can have 15-19 discharges a day,Ã¢â¬ she said. Mire's not taking care of the patient, you're documenting. Ã¢â¬ (Bradbury,2013 ) Standardization is a watchword of lean management. Nurses at SST. Charles Medical Center in central Oregon were Justly proud of their Rapid Response Team-?it had saved lives. But that didn't stop the administration from announcing plans to end the team.The rationale? Other hospitals don't have one. Most hospitals now use computers to set staffing. You enter the number of patients on the unit today, and the software spits out how many nurses and nursing assistants are needed. Employers claim they factor in the severity of patients' conditions-?but Mortally none of them do,Ã¢â¬ Burros said. (Bradbury,2013 ) Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study The strengths of this study can be summarized as the following: lean management was applied to a well known and prestigious hospital Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RUSH).Founded in 1884, RUSH is a Magnet hospital that is the principal teaching hospital of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey's Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and with well documented evidences that lean management worked for them. Other credible articles as to the applicability of lean management were also cited and gave a good argument to the promise that lean management can work fo r the healthcare sector. So in terms of credibility, accurate accumulation and evidence based arguments both for and against lean management were well presented.On the other hand, it is very clear that the main weakness of the study is its very limited scope and hence the uncertain conclusion as to whether lean management is applicable or not in nursing management. Conclusion It is very clear that the study has a very limited scope but we will summarize below both arguments for and against lean management in regards to its applicability in Nursing management. As shown in the results of the 2 case studies in order for lean management to succeed it must be: Leadership is critical for successThe literature emphasized the central role of committed leadership in the success of Lean work. According to Doss and Orr, leadership is Ã¢â¬Å"an integral part of the Lean Operating System, not an afterthought. Ã¢â¬ The support of leaders, they suggest, can Ã¢â¬Å"make the difference between su perficial attempts at implementing Lean-where the tools and techniques are evident, but the behaviors haven't changed-and full transformational deployments where the entire organization embraces Lean from the bottom up and the top down. Monsoons et al,2012) Lean work is systems work In their 2010 review, Macho and Litter emphasized that Lean work is a whole yester strategy that cannot be done piecemeal and that no single Ã¢â¬Å"silver bulletÃ¢â¬ solution, such as a new computer system or automated equipment, can achieve the same results. Systems thinking, the discipline of seeing wholes and inter- relationships, is certainly not new. As Sense suggested more than 20 years ago, the systems perspective is badly needed in a world overwhelmed by rapid technological change, changing demographics, shifting borders, and increasing complexity. 5)(6) Monsoons et al,2012) Communication is critical to success From the outset of our Lean work, we knew that communication was the key to the hor n-term and long-term success of our work. As we had done with past quality improvement efforts, we regularly reminded the staff to keep the vision of the future state in mind because, as the anticipatory principle suggests, the image of the future is what guides the current behavior within an organization. Monsoon et al,2012) As for the argument of those who are against lean management, the following reasons are cited: Lean management according to critics does not consider human factor for it stresses Ã¢â¬Å"no downtime, Just in time staffing, emphasis on the use of technology to monitor staffs performance, among others. Standardization is an emphasis of lean management that also rings alarm bells among employees who do not yet have a holistic appreciation for lean. In lean, first you standardize, then you improve. Improving a non-standard process is like remodeling a house built on quicksand.It won't do you much good in the long run. Ã¢â¬Å"(Bait, 2010 ) If we continue to standardi ze work in hospitals without accounting for the variety nurses and hospitals get from patients we will make things worse for patients, nurses, doctors and the bottom-line. The system needs to be redesigned around the work by management, ruses, doctors and others working together to improve the system. This all begins by management changing their thinking around the design and management of work. Once management understands by seeing the damage of their thinking in a normative way can real changes impact the work. Bait,2010 ) Now, to answer our query whether lean management is applicable or not in Nursing management, we say it is still remain to be seen. Learning from both sides of the argument of for or against lean, it is safe to conclude that lean management is applicable but not to all types of health care institution and setting. As much as success of lean management s well documented in the ROUGH, we have to remember this is a Magnet accredited hospital and employees are expect ed to get used to high standard work and compliance to a strong administrative leadership and management.Lean management is also about culture change and resistance will be expected so those who oppose have some valid points in which management has to seriously consider. After all for any system or management to work, people's satisfaction and cooperation should be addressed foremost and not to be ignored or taken for granted. Otherwise, what is the use of introducing a promising system such as lean management when in he process it will lead to dissatisfied and tired staff?
Sunday, January 5, 2020
1.4 What is Organizational Behavior? Organizational behavior is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people Ã¢â¬â as individuals and as groups Ã¢â¬â act within organizations. On the other hand, OB is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. Organizations: Organizations are groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose. Goals of organizational behavior -Describe: Systematically, how people behave under a variety of conditions. -Understand: Why people behave as they do? -Predict: predicting future employee behavior (Who would be dedicated and productive or absent tardy) -Control: Control and develop some human activity at work so that employees performance can be improved. 1.5 Limitations of the study: Since there has been no specific automobile insurance company in our country, it was difficult to collect required information from general insurance companies. There is very little difference among these companies as they follow the same rules regarding automobile insurance. Sometimes they are not interested to reveal confidential information about their company Time was comparatively short. 1.6 Report Preview The main view of the report is to show how the Mega Builders operates, its policies, cultures, conditions and services to the customer. Chapter-02 Pristine view of Ã¢â¬ËMega BuildersÃ¢â¬â¢ 2.1 Company Profile: Ã¢â¬Å"Mega buildersÃ¢â¬ is a real estate company that serves theShow MoreRelatedWhat Is Organizational Behavior?1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrganizational Behavior - a systematic study of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Several issues of interest to organizational behavior researchers: Motivation, Emotions, Personality and Communication. (Self Assessment Library? IV.G.1) Interpersonal Skills: A. Importance of Interpersonal Skills in the Workplace. 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